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Archive for the ‘General’ Category

Firstly, my apology if this has already been properly documented somewhere, but I didn’t find any easy and straight forward procedure and here is what I implemented at several Service Providers and works like a charm every time.

Before you perform anything, verify that you have the following files from the SSL Certificate Provider(s):

  • Root Certificate (These are usually in the form of .crt)
  • Any Intermediate Certificates (These are also in the form of .crt)
  • Public Key (This is in the form of .key)

Now, here are the detailed steps:

  1. cat root.crt  Intermediate.crt > certificate.chain.txt
  2. openssl pkcs12 -export -inkey -in certificate-chain.txt -out certificates.pkcs12

HTTP Certificate generation

  1. keytool -importkeystore -srckeystore certificates.pkcs12 -srcstoretype PKCS12 -destkeystore certificates.ks -deststoretype JCEKS -deststorepass <PASSWORD> -srcalias 1 -destalias http -srcstorepass <PASSWORD>
  2. keytool -list -keystore certificates.ks -storetype JCEKS -storepass <PASSWORD>

Console Proxy Certificate generation

  1. keytool -importkeystore -srckeystore certificates.pkcs12 -srcstoretype PKCS12 -destkeystore certificates.ks -deststoretype JCEKS -deststorepass <PASSWORD> -srcalias 1 -destalias consoleproxy -srcstorepass <PASSWORD>
  2. keytool -list -keystore certificates.ks -storetype JCEKS -storepass <PASSWORD>

Certificate permissions

  1. copy the certificates.ks to /opt/vmware/vcloud-director/jre/bin
  2. chown vcloud:vcloud /opt/vmware/vcloud-director/jre/bin/certificates.ks

Import procedure

  1. Stop the vCloud Director service, by typing “service vmware-vcd stop”
  2. Run /opt/vmware/vcloud-director/bin/configure
  3. When prompted for the certificate, point to /opt/vmware/vcloud-director/jre/bin/certificates.ks
  4. Enter the <PASSWORD> and confirm the <PASSWORD>
  5. When prompted to start the cell, press “y” and hit enter


  1. Verify that the cell has been restarted properly, by typing “/opt/vmware/vcloud-director/logs/tail –f cell.log”
  2. Verify that the Application Initialization is100% completed
  3. Open the browser, log into the vCloud Director and accept the new certificate and you are back in business

Additional Cells

Now, recreate the certs on the additional cells and re-run “configure” command as outlined in the above sections.

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VMware is challenging to build the best and most creative ESi management scripts possible and here are details:

VMware challenges you to build the best, most creative ESXi management scripts possible. The goal of the ScriptoMania contest is to help our wider community adopt ESXi by providing useful, fun and powerful scripts to manage the ESXi platform. The best part is that we give our winners bragging rights and we put some hard cold cash in your pockets. Are you up to the challenge?

  • Contest Begins: Thursday December 10, 2009
  • Contest Ends: March 15th 11:59 PM 2010 PST
  • Winner Announced: March 31st PST 2010

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Currently, I am working on how Virtualization can fit into the 10 security domains, which will be published shortly, but in the mean time enjoy the refresh on the basic concepts/terminology of the 10 security domains:

Domain 1 – Security Management

  • CIA Triad – Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Management – Threats, Vulnerabilities, Assess the threat level, how risk should be dealt with [Threat, Vulnerability, Controls]
  • Identify the threats and vulnerabilities –> understand what is the Threat, caused by what Vulnerability and resulting in what Risk
  • Assessing Asset Value – Quantitative and Qualitative
  • Quantitative Assessment – assign a monetary value -
  • Single loss expectancy (SLE) = asset value X its exposure factor = % of damage that a realized threat would have on the asset.
  • Annual rate of occurrence (ARO) = estimated number of times an event may occur within a year
  • Annual loss of expectancy (ALE) = SLE X ARO
  • Qualitative Assessment – it rates the severity of threats and the sensitivity of assets and categories [Low - Medium - High] components on the basis of this rating.
  • Handling Risk – Risk reduction, risk transference, risk acceptance and risk rejection – also can combine these measures.
  • Security Policies – official, high-level security documents – meet advisory, informative and regulatory needs – can be divided into:
    • Use Policy – email, internet access
    • Configuration Policy – network systems
    • Patch Management – approved patch
    • Infrastructure Policy – how to manage and maintain a system and by whom
    • User Account Policy – which users what permissions
    • Other Policies – encryption, backup, handling of data, password requirements etc.
  • Security Policy Objectives:
    • advise the technical team on their choice of equipment
    • guide the team in arranging the equipment
    • responsibilities of users and administrators
    • set out the consequences of a policy violation
    • reactions to the network threats + escalation steps
  • Standards – below Policies- define the processes that need to be implemented, but not the method of implementation
  • Guidelines – recommendations and suggestions of how policies or procedures should be implemented – should be flexible
  • Procedures – most specific and most detailed security documents – step-by-step implementation – specific to equipment
  • Roles and Responsibility – Senior Manager, Information Security Officer, Data Owner, Data Custodian, Users and Security Auditor
  • Information Classification – two models:
    • Military Information Classification – Top Secret, Secret, Confidential, Sensitive and Unclassified
    • Commercial Information Classification – Confidential, Private, Sensitive and Public
  • Security Training and Awareness – to all employees at various levels – should be developed different for different groups of employees (senior management, data custodians and users):
    • Security Awareness
    • Training – one-on-one
    • Education – classroom based – broader and longer


To be continued….

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Features Individual Desktop Manual Desktop Pool Automated Desktop Pool Microsoft Terminal Services Desktop Pool
Physical or VM Any Any vCenter VMs only TS Sessions only
Provisioning No auto-provisioning Not Provisioned on demand only assigned on demand Provisioned automatically on demand Sessions created automatically on demand
Provisioning Options N/A N/A VM Template or View Composer N/A
Persistence (Only during creation, but cannot be changed later)

Data Disk Option is available

Always Yes – one desktop to one user Yes – one desktop to one user Never
Non-Persistence (Only during creation, but cannot be changed later)

Data Disk Option is not available

Never Yes – Ability to request multiple desktops from a single desktop pool. The desktops cannot be deleted or refreshed after use. In this case if a desktop is accessed again, it will have remnants from any user-specific actions and data from the previous users. Yes – Ability to request multiple desktops from a single desktop pool. The desktops can be deleted or refreshed upon logout after first use, so only brand-new desktops are provisioned to users. However, it doesn’t remove any associated computer entry from AD.

Power off and delete virtual machines after first use option is only available here.

Entitlement Should be restricted to specific user Multiple desktops per user only for non-persistent pool Multiple desktops per user only for non-persistent pool One user per desktop session
View Agent Without View Agent, users can directly RDP to it instead of going via View Manager Without View Agent, users can directly RDP to it instead of going via View Manager Both VM Template (should not be part of a domain) and the Master VM (should be part of a domain) should have View Agent installed Installed in the Terminal Server’s OS image
View Composer N/A N/A Master VM –> Replica –> Linked Clones
Subsequent changes to Master –> New Replica –> Refresh or Recompose
Offline Desktops N/A Yes – only for persistent manual desktop pool that maps to a vCenter managed VM.
No – for any other types
Yes – only for persistent automated desktop pool that uses a VM template for provisioning
No – View Composer
No – Non-persistent
heterogeneous (physical or VM or patch level or CPU/RAM size) N/A Yes, but not recommended N/A N/A
Load Balancing Third-party Third-party Third-party Based on TS hosting the least number of active sessions

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    Raman Veeramraju